Sunday, March 18, 2018

Sofia Gubaidulina, Part 12

Not premiered until 1976, Gubaidulina's cantata for baritone and chamber orchestra, written in 1968, on texts from the Rubiyat is a single-movement work in seven sections. The use of the voice is quite original, utilizing pitched sounds, breathing sounds, spoken words, glissandi, whispering, falsetto and so on.

The premiere in the Hall of the Composers Union was very successful and was followed by a banquet for all the participants (for which the composer borrowed the funds from somewhere!).

Soon after, in April 1977, Gubaidulina completed a piece for flute quartet for the ensemble founded in the 60s by Pierre-Yves Artaud in Paris. Artaud was a specialist in 20th century repertoire and attended composition classes by Messiaen and Jolivet. The piece was premiered in February 1979 in the church of St. Denis on the outskirts of Paris. Gubaidulina was more and more unsuccessful in getting premieres of her new works inside the Soviet Union so risked premiering works in other countries. As a protection from political retaliation, her name was not listed on the program! This piece was one of a group of works written for instruments in the same family that included the Trio for Three Trumpets and the Duo Sonata for two bassoons.

In October 1977 the members of Astraea, the composer's improvisatory trio that included Gubaidulina, travelled to Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan, where they collected a number of folk instruments including the tar, Gubaidulina's favorite. Persian in origin, the tar has a figure-eight shaped body of mulberry wood and nine to eleven metal strings.

Gubaidulina has made a point of studying the folk music of a number of cultures: Armenian, Georgian, Yakutian, African, Balinese, Indian, Tibetan and so on.

A work from a bit later, 1982, and one that is, after her violin concerto Offertorium, one of the most-performed of her music is her Seven Words (of Jesus Christ on the Cross). The piece has solo parts for cello and bayan, the Russian accordion.

Just to reiterate, what I am doing in this series of posts is just going through the biography by Michael Kurtz and listening to the works in roughly chronological order. At the end I am going to do some closer examination of a few representative pieces with a bit of analysis.

Saturday, March 17, 2018

The Real Recompense

I was standing in the doorway to my office the other day when a guitarist, passing by, stopped to greet me. It took me a minute to remember his name, Antonio. He teaches guitar at the local music school and a few years ago he came to see me for two or three lessons because he was having trouble with his right hand. Due to using the muscles in an odd way, he had developed severe tension in his hand to the point that it was nearly immobile. I worked with him on rebuilding his right hand technique and he seemed to be improving. I hadn't seen him in years so I asked him how his hand was. He thanked me effusively and said I had saved his guitar-playing! We talked a bit about what he was playing these days (Villa-Lobos etudes and preludes). He said again, "gracias, maestro!" and took his leave. "Maestro" in the context he used it, means "master."

A few years ago I helped out two other professional guitarists with similar problems and they too ended up rebuilding their technique and credit me with saving their ability to play. It is often the very enthusiasm and dedication to the instrument that gets musicians in trouble because they practice even though their body is trying to tell them something is wrong. I remember a video of Isaac Stern one time saying that every hour you practice incorrectly takes a couple of hours of practicing correctly to fix. Sad, but true.

I'm not sure exactly how I figured out guitar technique, but starting on the electric bass guitar might have had some influence. I was fifteen or sixteen when I finally got interested in music. I wanted to play the drums but my mother, after visiting the local music shop, came home and said "we can't afford to rent drums for you, they cost $10 a month!" Let me hasten to say that this was 1965 and my mother got paid about $250 a month. Our mortgage was $80 a month. Long time ago! You could rent a bass guitar for only $4 a month so that's what I started on. As my mother said "the bass guitar is also in the rhythm section!" She was a fiddler, by the way. So, apart from some abortive piano lessons when I was eleven, the bass guitar was my first instrument. Four very big heavy strings that you play with your right hand index and middle fingers. Pretty demanding for your left hand as well--you need lots of muscle.

Soon after I took up the six-string guitar as well and a few years later switched to classical guitar. I have a photo of myself taken in 1973 just before I went to Spain to study with Maestro José Tomás, so this is me before high quality instruction:

I'm playing a cheap student guitar, but the interesting thing is my hand position. For both hands it is quite good, no over-extension or obvious tension. There are a host of things that go into being a good player, but one of them is some basic physical aptitude, what my mother called "touch." She was a naturally good fiddle player and she used to say that so-and-so had a good "touch" on the instrument. That's a quality of string players and, I guess, keyboard players as well. I suspect it is something you really can't teach. Another element that is important is your sense of timbre. How aware are you of the exact kind of tone color you are producing? I have had students that were good in every other aspect, but they just could not seem to make a good sound. Another element is your sensitivity to the phrase. This is a purely musical element, of course. How you feel and direct the flow of a phrase comes directly from how you feel the music. On a higher level it is how you handle the structural flow of the piece.

With great musicians all the elements are present and reinforce one another. With pretty good musicians they have a lot of them and have to work on whatever ones they are weak on. So being able to analyze your own strengths and weaknesses is a crucial skill because you really can't count on anyone else, even a master teacher, to do it for you. And that's about all I have to say on the matter!

Here, by way of envoi, is Carora - vals venezolano by Antonio Lauro in my recording:

Friday, March 16, 2018

Fee Schedule

A long time ago I put up a post on the official performance fees for didgeridoo players in New South Wales. You really should follow the link. This reminds me of a pianist I used to know (he ended up the musical director of the Shaw Festival in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario). He used to do the occasional cocktail piano gig and his specialty was Rhapsody in Blue by Gershwin. But he would only play that demanding piece if he was given a $50 tip. Makes sense. An old friend of mine who has retired to a beach in Brazil writes me that he wishes I would do a classical arrangement of The Girl from Ipanema that he could listen to while relaxing on his veranda. I wrote him back that my fee would be $1,000 US plus another thousand for recording costs. Heh! This gets me thinking about performance fees and I see the opportunity for a bit of satire.

Based upon my experience in the professional business world since retiring as a classical guitar virtuoso, this is what I would charge for performances these days, if I were giving any. All amounts in US dollars.

  • Short 20 minute program of 16th century Spanish vihuela music with original ornaments derived from my own research: $500
  • Longer 30 minute program adding favorite pieces by Bach in my original transcriptions: $1,000
  • Full recital program of about an hour and ten minutes including intermission of the above works plus music by 20th century Spanish composers (Rodrigo and Moreno Torroba): $2,000
  • The same but with entertaining remarks before pieces, add an additional $500
  • Full recital program including selections from above but featuring original compositions that might include one of my two suites for guitar: $3,000 (add $500 for informative commentary)
  • Full recital program with music for violin and guitar including original transcriptions of works by Rameau, Debussy and Shostakovich as well as my Four Pieces for violin and guitar and my new piece "Dark Dream" for violin and guitar. $5,000
  • Performance as soloist in concertos by Castelnuovo-Tedesco ($5,000), Villa-Lobos ($8,000) or Rodrigo ($10,000)
These are actually quite reasonable fees based on the level of professional training, experience, creativity and sheer work involved.

OK, now what did I actually get paid for a performance back when I was a touring virtuoso? For being the featured soloist in the Villa-Lobos Guitar Concerto (as well as playing two of his preludes for guitar) in a gala concert before the Brazilian Consul-General in the gloriously restored Orpheum Theatre in Vancouver with the CBC Vancouver Orchestra conducted by Mario Bernardi, recorded for national broadcast: $1,300 dollars. Canadian dollars.

Here is one of my pieces for violin and guitar: Surreal Reel.

Friday Miscellanea

It doesn't get much wackier than this:

Mind you, I don't know if this illustrates the eccentricities of musicians, or of bagpipe players specifically, or if it is really all about a bungee jumper who happens to play the bagpipes. Your call.

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When I wasn't looking Vancouver has developed a quite interesting concert scene. Here is an article on upcoming seasons of Early Music Vancouver and the Vancouver Recital Society. It was in a concert of the latter, many years ago, that I first heard the Piano Trio in E minor of Shostakovich--actually the first Shostakovich I heard in concert. Here is one concert I would love to attend: Schubert lieder in their original early 19th century arrangements for voice and guitar, performed on an historical instrument.

* * *

While we are on the subject, here is a performance of the last song from Die Winterreise, "Der Leiermann" in a version for voice and guitar:

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Norman Lebrecht, master of clickbait, over at Slipped Disc headlines an item Shostakovich: I wish I'd written Jesus Christ Superstar. Best comment: "I think we ALL wish Shostakovich had written it!" Yep.

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An article in the Wall Street Journal introduces Chinese pipa player Wu Man:
Though China looms larger than ever in the news, Americans remain largely ignorant of its musical culture. And while opportunities to broaden our perspective occasionally occur—Carnegie Hall made China the focus of a major festival in 2009 and Lincoln Center has presented various Chinese troupes over the years—rare are visits by ensembles from China’s heartland, where peasant traditions go back generations, if not centuries. Enter the pipa virtuoso Wu Man, arguably the pre-eminent ambassador for traditional Chinese music in the U.S. Born in Hangzhou, China, and educated in Beijing, Ms. Wu, whose four-stringed, fretted instrument resembles the Western lute, relocated to the U.S. in 1990 and has since crossed all manner of cultural boundaries, performing regularly with Yo-Yo Ma’s Silk Road Ensemble and the Kronos Quartet.
There is also a good clip on YouTube about Wu Man and Chinese music. Don't miss the segment on the Taoist band performing joyful funeral music:

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 The latest on the James Levine affair is that the Met finally officially fired him and his lawyers immediately responded with a suit for unfair dismissal. Honestly, you can't make this stuff up. Slipped Disc has, not only the story, but an extended set of entertaining comments.

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For our envoi today, a piece from Shostakovich's lighter side and yes, he did have one. This is the polka from his ballet suite The Golden Age:

Wednesday, March 14, 2018

Joseph Bologne, Chevalier de Saint-Georges

The fact that Joseph Bologne, Chevalier de Saint-Georges, is not much better known is an interesting curiosity of music history. Was he a composer of the stature of Haydn or Mozart? Likely not, but who is? Was he a pretty good composer of the rank just below? Quite likely. Here is his portrait:

Joseph Bologne, Chevalier de Saint-Georges (1745 - 1799)
As you can see, he was a master swordsman, but also a virtuoso violinist and a leading conductor who conducted the premiere of Haydn's Paris Symphonies. Oh, and also, he was a black man. I wonder if he is not neglected simply because he so contradicts the narrative we are supposed to believe, that the 18th century was nothing but a hellhole of racism where a black man would never have been allowed to enter polite society, let alone become an officer of the king's bodyguard and a chevalier. He also became the conductor of two of France's finest orchestras and came within a hair of being appointed director of the Paris Opéra. In London he was the guest of the Prince of Wales, before whom he gave a number of exhibition matches against various opponents. I did mention that he was a famous and brilliant master of fencing? And a virtuoso violinist who wrote a number of concertos for himself. Here is a recording of several of his violin concertos:

Nice stuff! He also did pretty well as an opera composer, but, sadly, most of his operas have been lost and I wasn't able to find a good clip of the few isolated arias that remain.

I recommend reading the Wikipedia article on him, which is quite lengthy. He had a fascinating life and for two months shared a house with a young Mozart in Paris.

Tuesday, March 13, 2018

Tension and Resolution

Tension and resolution is one of the basic technical devices of music and therefore one of the basic problems of composition. Over the long development of tonality and even before, in the period of modal harmony, the basic means of structuring music in a way that was both expressive and perceivable by the listener was to use dissonance and consonance to create tension and resolution. The basic arc was always to move from a state of stability or rest to one of energy and tension, then to return to the state of rest. This was done through micro and macro use of consonance and dissonance. By the 18th and 19th centuries this had been developed to a tremendous extent and the so-called "common practice" system of harmony had sophisticated and subtle resources to structure the flow of music.

Unfortunately, these resources are scarcely available to us anymore. The harmonic progressions of tonality, unless quoted or used ironically tend to sound trite and trivial. So our options are either to give up the techniques of tension and resolution entirely or to find new ways of incorporating them. Traditionally the tensions and resolutions were based on degrees of harmonic dissonance but the possibility of using other parameters such as rhythm or dynamics or timbre or texture was always lurking in the background.

I am a fan of the music of Steve Reich and, to a lesser extent, Philip Glass, but their music, while energetic and compelling, does have an underlying problem. On the macro level, it is relatively static but compensates for this with a built-in tension on the micro level. What do I mean? Take for an example the piece "Octet" by Steve Reich. It is a dynamic, energetic piece:

But the level of energy and tension scarcely varies throughout the piece. It starts with a high level of tension (5/4 time signature, syncopated rhythms and a stretto between piano 1 and 2) and while it adds and subtracts different components (bass clarinets, flute solo), the basic texture keeps this same level of energy throughout. It starts and ends with roughly the same level of tension. The piece works because of the sheer ingenuity of the ideas, but it does not use the technique of tension and resolution because it avoids anything resembling a resolution. This is generally the case with most of his music.

A lot of the composers in the high modernism phase avoided the issue entirely. The "moment form" of Stockhausen, for example, by definition avoids any kind of long-range, structural organization, therefore cannot use tension and resolution. Each "moment" is as structurally important as every other. Other composers use complex methods of structuring that leave the listener unsure of any kind of direction in terms of tension and resolution. The level of dissonance, for example, remains high throughout. This is usually the problem with serial compositions that build in a specific level of dissonance. Composers like John Cage who use chance procedures avoid tension and resolution as well.

One way of structuring music is to have a relatively low level of tension throughout. This seems quite popular these days and extends from the mellow stylings of "New Age" music right up to the environmentally sensitive textures of John Luther Adams whose "Become Ocean" won a Pulitzer Prize for basically being cosmic and ominous. Blogger doesn't want to embed, so just follow the link:

The problem is that it is cosmic and ominous throughout, again, basically static except for crescendos and decrescendos.

I don't find that any of these procedures work for me, so I have been trying to find other ones that do. After all, if you have some materials, whatever they are, you can surely arrange them to create large-scale tensions and resolutions. The area of rhythm, despite a lot of focus, still has great potential. Steve Reich's early piece "Drumming" did use some fascinating devices on both the micro and macro levels to create structure. For example, the technique of "phasing" where a particular rhythmic pattern slides past a mirror of itself, creates tension and resolution on the micro level while the filling in of the metric structure over time creates a medium level of tension and resolution. On the level of the whole piece he creates direction through instrumentation. An opening section with just small drums is followed by sections for marimbas, glockenspiels and finally all instruments together.

I have developed some other ways of using rhythm to create structure and they seem to be working quite well. I am hoping to make a recording soon of my new piece "Dark Dream" so I can show them to you. Suffice it to say, for now, that if you set up a very high-tension, oppositional texture earlier in the piece, you can resolve this by transforming it into a rhythmic unison.

Sunday, March 11, 2018

Catty Micro-Reviews, New Edition

I can't claim to have invented the mini-review, in fact as classical record reviews seem to be shrinking more and more, pretty soon everyone will be doing them. With horror, I realized the other day that I haven't done a set of catty micro-reviews for years and years. So here goes. My methodology is simple. I just go to YouTube, type in a single letter of the alphabet and listen to the first pop song that comes up. Then I try to deliver a one or two sentence review. Let's start with "A."

First up, believe it or not is "Adventure of a Lifetime" from Coldplay with an astonishing 721,780,550 views:

The opening of Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey redone in CGI with a tedious pop-rock back-beat. Kubrick's original soundtrack featured music by Johann Strauss, Richard Strauss and Györgi Ligeti.

Agh, this isn't my day! The first thing that comes up with "B" is "Bodak Yellow" by Cardi B and Blogger doesn't want to embed the original video. Just follow the link.

It is a rare accomplishment for a music video to be aesthetically unpleasant in all these dimensions: music, lyrics, fashion, and culturally, but this one manages. How over 490 million people managed to watch this without resulting nausea is a mystery to me.

Typing in "C" brings up a tune by Mexican rapper C-Kan, "Un Par de Balas" which means "A Couple of Bullets."

As rap goes, this is fairly tolerable. I wonder, is it sort of illegal for anyone in this sub-culture to actually not, you know, have any tattoos?

"D" brings up a tune by Ludacris, well known for his recurring role in several Fast and Furious films. Everything in the video is turned into a weird cartoon with more CGI. You know, I think this is how the elite of music these days distinguish themselves from the low-rent artists: CGI budget. A couple of guys in a garage just can't compete, which is the whole idea. Mind you, they certainly could musically, as this music is about as tediously formulaic as possible. Again, follow the link.

"E" brings up a song by Matt Mason, a country singer with a mere 4 million views.

This video is so low-budget that they use default captions from iMovie! Apart from that it is pretty much a standard country song: unfaithful wife, car (or rather truck) chase, use of shotgun, steel guitar solo. Kind of like Johnny Cash or Bob Dylan around the time of Nashville Skyline, with about 70% of the inspiration removed.

After all that, we really need a palate cleanser, don't we? Here is "Lay, Lady Lay" from the aforementioned Nashville Skyline: